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HR Handled Right

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Between 2007 and 2012, the number of complaints filed with the EEOC increased by more than 50%, with the second most common disability claim under the ADA involving a psychiatric illness. In fact, mental impairments account for 11.7% of the ADA claims and include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder.

Anxiety disorders, in particular, are exceedingly common. Although most people who develop an anxiety disorder feel alone, frightened and – all too often – “crazy,” the reality is that anxiety disorders are the most commonly experienced mental illness. Forty million people in the United States – 18% of the adult population – experience an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.

Symptoms can range from a chronic sense of worry and tension to unwanted and intrusive obsessions and compulsions to spontaneous bursts of severe anxiety with accompanying physical sensations such as a racing heart or shortness of breath. Some sufferers can pinpoint the source of their anxiety; for others, it remains a mystery.

Bringing Anxiety to Work

One of the most frustrating aspects of many anxiety disorders is the unpredictability of their symptoms. For sufferers, this can feel like perpetually waiting for the other shoe to drop. For the employer, whose business depends on predictable and consistent performance and attendance, it can be disruptive and frustrating as well.

However, most anxiety sufferers perform well at work. Many do not need accommodations at all, having learned ways to cope with their anxiety symptoms through trial and error, treatment, or a combination of both. Others require minimal assistance, i.e., a short-term flexible schedule to adjust to a new medication or an organized supervision style with regular meetings, clear assignments, and advance notice of unexpected changes. In fact, given the prevalence of anxiety disorders, it is highly likely that you have a coworker who successfully manages symptoms that no one s/he works with is aware of.

Just Give Me More (and More) Time

Much less frequent is the employee who uses his or her diagnosis to create more favorable (or convenient) work conditions. This is the employee, for example, whose use of intermittent leave routinely happens on a Friday or around a holiday, or who routinely requests a change of supervisor because his current one makes him nervous (While a change in supervision style can be a reasonable, and often effective accommodation, a change in supervisor may not be).

The best way to eliminate these situations is to a) have a clear absenteeism policy with call-in guidelines; b) track absenteeism patterns and, during medical certification, include any unusual pattern with the employee’s job description and ask the physician whether the employee’s diagnosis would create this pattern, and c) make sure job descriptions clearly outline interpersonal expectations (such as getting along with peers and managers) as essential job functions.

Don’t Worry; I’m (Trying to Be) Happy

Then there’s the flip side; the employee who keeps insisting she’s fine when she’s not. This is the employee who keeps coming to work even though she repeatedly falls apart, seeks out several coworkers to help her, and has to be taken by ambulance to the emergency room. Whether it’s because she’s fearful of losing her job if she takes time off, or in denial about the seriousness of her symptoms, she just doesn’t seem to grasp the limitations that she currently has.

In this situation, a first step is to encourage her to get the help she needs. Consider open questions that will encourage an employee to request support or accommodation. At the same time, remember that your job is not to probe into an employee’s personal life, to diagnose a problem, or to act as their counselor (It’s possible to have a conversation about this without ever mentioning the word “anxiety” or “mental illness,” i.e., by focusing on her behavior at work and the impact it is having on the people she works with.)

Make available whatever company resources you have to assist her. If she decides to pursue FMLA, make sure you provide the doctor with a copy of the job description and the employee’s attendance record; as many as one out of every three anxiety disorder sufferers also have a substance abuse problem and a Friday/Monday pattern of absences may be an indicator. You might also want to ask for a very specific return-to-work note.

The Bottom Line

Invisible disabilities like anxiety can’t be seen but they are surely felt – by the sufferer as well as those around him/her. Fortunately, they are also highly treatable; in fact, all of us work with individuals who have successfully dealt with anxiety or depression. With a little flexibility and adequate resources, employers can help anxious employees return to a more productive and happy state by focusing on whether and how they can accommodate them rather than whether or not a certain medical condition is a disability.

Companies also better take a second look at their job descriptions and address, where appropriate, the emotional stamina requirements of a job. This is important because, under the law, employers do not have to eliminate essential requirements, only how they are performed. If a job requires the ability to work long hours or with little supervision, make it clear. Not only will this provide some legal protection, it can help applicants who aren’t able to meet these demands to opt out before they fail.

“Let me see if I can put this in terms you can understand.” “You don’t know what you’re talking about.” “I thought
that, too, when I was your age.” Condescending remarks hurt. They contribute to an atmosphere of destructive conflict, even when we accompany them with smiles or veneers of humor.

While we most associate those kinds of comments with bosses or managers, anyone in the workplace can patronize. For instance, a low-ranking, technically savvy engineer remarks to a director of marketing, “Yes, as I’ve already explained, we could do as you suggest — if you want to blow our deadline – again.

The sources of condescension range from sloppy communication (I’m in a hurry and I don’t have to time to consider your feelings or worry about manners) to insecurity (I feel threatened by you and am trying to regain the upper footing) to an out-of-control ego (I must appear smart, worldly and in-the-know by demonstrating my expertise at every opportunity).

Strategy: Regardless of the reason, your best bet is to handle the remark calmly and directly. “What do you mean by saying _____________?” This will (hopefully) force the other person to explain exactly what he/she meant. It’s a subtle way to take control of the situation, putting the instigator on the spot to explain/defend his/her remark. That way, you still come across as professional, and deflect inappropriate comments.

Let Me Explain it to You Again

In addition to snide comments, another common way condescension rears its ugly head in the workplace is when a coworker continually “explains” things to others when it’s obvious they already know what s/he is taking about.

Let’s face it; no one wants a lesson in basic science if s/he is a rocket scientist, yet some people routinely view questions as signals that the asker can’t handle the situation. As a result, they jump in and offer advice/help without evaluating what the questioner already knows.

Strategy: The next time you feel like you should explain something, whether it’s a business policy, a technology, an incidental, or something that will help clarifying your meaning… give the other person the benefit of the doubt.

Strategy: Preface your response with “You may already know this but…” It’ sets a completely different tone in how we come across to others. If the questioner didn’t already know what you’re talking about, s/he’ll be flattered that you overestimated his or her expertise and, if s/he was already clued in, no harm is done. No one wants to think that we assume they don’t know anything!

Strategy: Before you ask a question, tell them what you already know before you pose the problem to them. For example, if you phrase your question like so: “Hey, I wanted to ask your advice about A, B and C. I was thinking that I could do D and E, or maybe F. Do you have any other ideas?” This way, you present your solution/thoughts, so the person you’re asking knows that you’ve been thinking about the issue already.

Strategy: Whenever possible, avoid asking the advice of people you do not respect or who are simply rude.

Joseph Wolfgang von Goethe once said, “Look closely at those who patronize you; half are unfeeling, half untaught.” Make sure you’re not among the unfeeling or clueless and help educate – and reign in – your colleagues who are.

Failing to provide critical information on a project. Spreading malicious rumors about coworkers.Destroying or stealing company equipment. Giving classified product information to a competitor.

These are just a few of the ways I’ve seen employees retaliate toward a company for perceived injustices. Plaintiffs don’t talk about what happened (I’m suing because I lost my job or because I was sexually harassed) nearly as much as they relate stories of interpersonal inconsideration and abuse (no one took my complaint seriously, I was marched out the door accompanied by a security guard).

When Employee Trust is Broken

In a work environment, revenge occurs in response to violations of trust, i.e., when expectations concerned another person’s behavior are not met, or when that person does not act consistent with one’s values. Violations of interpersonal justice, i.e.., how one expects to be treated , tend to evoke the strongest emotional responses, ranging from anger to moral outrage.

There is evidence, for example, that dismissals or terminations do not provoke violence in and of themselves. Rather, vengeful attitudes and behaviors result from the humiliation that occurs when terminations are conducted in an abusive and insensitive manner. In fact, numerous studies have found a relationship between unpopular decisions or outcomes (being terminated, for example) and retaliation only when there was anger over how the decision was carried out (was the person treated with respect?) and how it was made (was the decision-making process fair?).

Over 80% of the cases of workplace homicide involve employees who want to get even for what they perceived as their organizations’ unfair or unjust treatment of them. This is not to deny the role of individual differences and how they interact with different workplace situations. An employee who explodes may have a higher level of aggression to contribute to the outburst.

Workplace Retaliation: Don’t Break Your Psychological Contract

Retaliation at work doesn’t just occur in response to interpersonal abuse or humiliation. It can also result from the perceived violation of a psychological contract, i.e., the expectations that both employees and employees bring to the employment relationship that operate above and beyond the formal job responsibilities.

The currency of the psychological contract is not traditional compensation. Rather, it involves intangibles such as respect, freedom from harassment, recognition, continuous, accurate, and updated communications, and opportunities-to-grow and develop. An abusive manager, unrealistic sales projections given to a candidate during a hiring interview, a grievance that falls on deaf ears – these are all things that can lead to a sense of betrayal and injustice – and fantasies of revenge.

Improving Your Fairness Quotient

Human resources can play a vital role in organizational justice by:

Checking all policies and work rules to assure that there are procedures that create fairness. The important ones center on pay, diversity, and etc. Look at decisions made in implementing these rules and general working practices to assure that fairness and equality is explicit in all supervisory and management decisions about employees and their work.
Including leadership and interpersonal skills in your management development program, including 360-degree evaluations by subordinates, coworkers and management.

Making sure all candidates are provided with “realistic job previews” (i.e., providing an accurate description of the job, organization, and opportunities, including both positive and negative features).
Providing multiple avenues for employees to deal with grievances (and the feelings associated with them). For example, in addition to formal grievance procedures, engage your EAP to give informal talks during corporate transitions and offer outplacement services during layoffs.

The Bottom Line

“Revenge is a confession of pain,” says a Latin proverb. While there are many reasons employees engage in sabotaging or aggressive acts in the workplace, HR can play an active role in reducing the odds it would be in response to an unfair or abusive work environment.

Your most gregarious employee suddenly becomes withdrawn and aloof. Your previously decisive team leader can’t seem to make the simplest decision. Your easygoing coworker starts arguing with coworkers and takes offense at the drop of a hat. Your most dependable employee shows up late, calls in sick, and doesn’t finish projects. These are some of the symptoms of depression in the workplace.

So what’s a manager to do? On one hand, production must continue, yet the compassionate manager should also be concerned for the well-being of the employee. Performance issues have to be dealt with and yet the employee’s previously stellar record – or obvious emotional pain – tempts the manager to just pick up the slack until the employee gets back on his or her feet.

The scenario of the depressed employee often presents a dilemma for his/her manager. So why does the manager haveto deal with it? The employee is a grown-up; why doesn’t s/he come to the manager first?

Note to Manager: Don’t Wait for Me to Come to You

The odds are, s/he won’t. Most depressed employees would rather eat dirt than admit to their managers that they’re depressed. Part of this is because of the shame many depression sufferers feel about what they feel is their “weakness.” However, a large part of their silence is due to the stigma many people continue to experience around mental illness.

For example, in an online survey of 1,129 workers conducted by the American Psychiatric Association of 1,129 workers, a high percentage believed that seeking help for particular psychological problems – such as drug addiction (76%), alcoholism (73%) and depression (62%) – would not be as accepted. As I mentioned in another article I wrote, for every story I’ve heard about a supportive manager or caring HR professional, I’ve heard ten from employees who felt their disclosure led to being teased, overly scrutinized, or discriminated against.

The First Step: Recognizing how Depression Impacts WorkMost managers have some employees they’d like to clone and some they’d like to clobber. And, certainly, a slacker can become depressed just as a superstar can. What’s noticeable about depression, though, is the change in the employee. The good employee’s performance declines while the marginal employee gets worse.Here’s what that change in performance may look like:

  • Unfinished projects
  • Forgetfulness
  • Increased errors
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Indecisiveness
  • Irritability
  • Loss of interest in work or socializing with colleagues
  • Seems tired/fatigued

What to Say to a Depressed Employee

Managers are not there to talk about medical problems, counsel, or diagnose. They are there to talk about work performance and behavior. They are also there to care about their employees’ wellbeing. When talking to a potentially depressed employee, here are some ways to do both:

  1. Start with your concern for the employee. “Sandy, I’m concerned about you.”
  2. Focus your comments on observable behaviors. “You’ve been late to work four times in the past two weeks and your reports have had twice as many errors.”
  3. Acknowledge the change. “This isn’t like you. You’re normally the first in to work and the last person in the department to make mistakes.”
  4. Offer them an olive branch. “I don’t know if things in your personal life are affecting you, but if they are we have a confidential employee assistance plan that might be able to help.”
  5. Be prepared to set limits. For instance, if the employee mentions marital discord, problems with a child, financial problems, and so forth, the manager should be empathic but should limit the conversation.
  6. Refer to an E.A.P. Offer the employee the telephone number for the employee assistance program or suggest that it would serve the employee well to consider outside professional counseling through health care benefits, a community clinic, an employee assistance plan, or even through pastoral counseling.
  7. Reinforce your concern. I’m very invested in helping you get back on track.
  8. Reinforce the need to improve performance. However, whether or not you contact this service, you will still be expected to meet your performance goals.

The Bottom Line

Clinical depression has been described as a black dog, a suffocating blanket, and an endless, dark hole. Untreated, it can sap the energy and motivation out of the most productive employee. With the right help, it can be managed, overcome, or worked around. In fact, for some people, coping with depression has given them some gifts that might now have otherwise received – such as a greater perspective and empathy for others. At least, that’s what one lifelong depression sufferer you may know said – Abraham Lincoln.